Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use multiple sources to evaluate Frank W. Ballou’s contributions to the District of Columbia Public Schools and the city of Washington.
  • Describe Frank W. Ballou's Role in the dual school system of the District of Columbia.
  • Evaluate opinions on name of the school in relation to the superintendency of Frank W. Ballou.

Standards

DCPS Content and Skills Standards:

United States History - 11th Grade 

  • 11.4. Students analyze the changing landscape, including the growth of cities and development of cities divided by race, ethnicity, and class.
D.C. History and Government - 12th Grade
  • 12.DC.10. Students compare the employment (e.g., skilled and unskilled trades, entrepreneurs) and educational opportunities (e.g., elementary through postsecondary training) for white and black Washingtonians.

Historical and Social Studies Skills

  • 9-12.HCI.1: Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
  • 9-12.HCI.3: Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
  • 9-12.HCI.4: Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
  • 9-12.HCI.6: Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than present-day norms and values.

Resources

Daily Handout

All questions and portions of the lesson are included in this handout.

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Primary Sources:

"Ballou Reaffirms Dual School Stand: Separate Systems for White and Black Pupils to Continue, says superintendnent," The Washington Post, 15 November, 1921, p. 2.

"Suffered Stroke; Known for Enegy, Efficiency; Was Popular on 'Hill'," The Washinton Post and Times Herald, 3 February, 1955, p. 18.

Secondary Sources:

Handorf, William George. “An Historical Study of the Superintendency of Frank W. Ballou in the Public School System of the District of Columbia,” Doctoral Dissertation, The American University, 1962, p. 361-365.

Roe, Donald. “The Dual School System in the District of Columbia, 1862-1954: Origins, Problems, Protests,” Washington History, Vol. 16, No. 2. (Fall/Winter, 2004-2005), p. 26-43.

Homework - Community Survey



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Excerpt - "An Historical Study of the Superintendency of Frank W. Ballou"

Though not a resource to use with all students, this is good background reading on the complicated superintendency of Frank W. Ballou. This excerpt is the author's thoughts on Ballou's overseeing the dual school system.

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Creator: Handorf, William G.
Source: Doctoral Dissertation, American University
Date: 1962

Warm Up

Students will complete their diagnostic quiz as a warm-up for this lesson.  My students work best when they have calm music playing during assignments like this.  Students should also be reminded that at the beginning of this unit they are not expected to know answers to all of the questions on the diagnostic. 

Warm-Up:  Complete the following questions to the best of your ability.

1.  For whom is our school named?

2.  What does it take to get a school named after you?

3.  When did this school building open?

4.  What was the first graduating class?

5.  Name three things that happened at Ballou Senior High School before you enrolled here.

6.  Do students like going to Ballou?

7.  Do teachers like teaching at Ballou?

8.  How will the new school change attitudes about attending Ballou?

New Material

The class will work through the Washington Post obituary for Dr. Ballou.  As the class answers the questions listed below, special attention should be given to the types of questions, as these will be recurring throughout the unit and course. 

Before you read:

1. What type of document is this?  Who might the audience be?

2.What are any distinguishing physical marks on the document? (For example, handwritten, typed, stamp, etc.)

3.Who wrote this?  When?  Where?

After you read:

4.How old was Frank W. Ballou at the time of his death?  In what year was he likely born?

5.What was his cause of death?

6.What did Frank W. Ballou have to do with public education in the District of Columbia?

7.What was his most important contribution to the community?

8.Rewrite this phrase in your own words:  “Dr. Ballou was a constant advocate of more realistic vocational training, in junior high schools, higher standards of teaching and better salaries for teachers.”

9.Why did the writer mention the University of Missouri?

10.Name one other event that happened during Dr.  Ballou’s lifetime.

11.Predict: Why might our school be named for Frank W. Ballou?

Frank W. Ballou Obituary



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Creator: Staff Writer
Source: Washington Post and Times Herald
Date: February 3, 1955

Practice

This sections should be completed in the same manner as the New Material section.  Today's lesson is primarily setting up the methods of inquiry and is designed to provoke questions and discussion among the class.  Go with it.

The teacher should also take the opportunity to explain this first source is from a shcolarly journal, therefore it is a secondary source of some authority. 

Guided Practice:  Excerpt From:Donald Roe, “The Dual School System in the District of Columbia, 1862-1954: Origins, Problems, Protests,” Washington History, Vol. 16, No. 2. (Fall/Winter, 2004-2005), p. 26-43.

20.  Who is the current head of DCPS?

21.  Were DC public schools segregated under Ballou’s leadership? Underline any evidence.

22.  Under the dual school system, were black or white schools better?  How do you know?

23.  What are three issues arose with black schools after World War I?

24.  Why did white enrollment in DC public schools decrease in the 1940s?

25. Predict: Do you think Dr. Ballou supported having a dual school system or not?Why do you think this?

26.  Sourcing: What types of documents could we look for that might reveal Dr. Ballou’s views on the dual school system? (List at least 3.)

Roe, The Dual School System

The day's handout contains an excerpt from this article. It is included in its entirety here in the event students are interested, or the instructor would like to edit for more rigor.

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Creator: Roe, Donald
Source: Washington History, Vol. 16, No. 2.
Date: Fall/Winter, 2004-2005

Independent Practice: Students will analyze an article from early in Dr. Ballou's tenure as superintendent.  In it, he offers his throughts on the state of and plans for the dual school system.

Before you read:

27.  What type of document is this?  Who might the audience be?

28.  What are any distinguishing physical marks on the document? (For example, handwritten, typed, stamp, etc.)

29.  Who wrote this?  When?  Where?

After you read:

30.  Did Dr. Ballou intend to change the dual school system in the District?  What reason did he give for this intention?

31.  What is another word for “organic”?

32.  What initiatives did Dr. Ballou intend to support during his time as superintendent?

33.  Predict: This article was published at the beginning of Dr. Ballou’s superintendency.  Do you think he ever changed his views on the dual school system?  Why or why not?

Ballou Reaffirms Dual System



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Creator: Staff Writer
Source: The Washington Post
Date: November 15, 1921

Excerpt - "An Historical Study of the Superintendency of Frank W. Ballou"

This source is not listed in the daily handout, but may be of some benefit to some students and faculty alike.

Download this file
Creator: Handorf, William G.
Source: Doctoral Dissertation, American University
Date: 1962

Assessment

Student will complete three brief reflection questions targeted at assessing their views on the material covered and the historical skills used.  After the assessment, it might be good to talk through the answers as a class in order to reinforce ideas of contextualization of Ballou's views and questioning our limited sources.

27.Do you think our school should be named after Frank W. Ballou?Why or why not?

28.Which source from today’s lesson was most influential in your opinion?Why do you trust this particular source?

29.If you could ask one question of Frank Ballou, what would it be?

Closure and Reflection

Students are instructed to list three further questions they have about or from the day's lesson.  These can help guide future inquiry and also act as another form of assessment for the instructor.

Before the end of class, students will be given community surveys they must complete for lesson 4 in the unit.  As these are non-consecutive lessons, this should not be a problem for any student.