Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

1) Describe the growth of the District of Columbia throughout the twentieth century. (Great Depression, World War II, Civil Rights Movement, Gentrification)

2) Evaluate attempts to connect the area East of the River with L'Enfant's original plan for the city. 

Standards

12.DC.11. Students explain how Washington, DC’s population grew and became more diverse with the infusion of immigrant minorities.
1. Identify key migratory waves that have occurred during the 20th century.
2. Explain how political, social, and cultural institutions have arisen over the years to respond to their needs and preferences.
12.DC.14. Students describe the historical developments in Washington, DC, during the first half of the 20th century.
1. Explain how World War I, the New Deal, and World War II created dramatic increases in the District’s population.
2. Describe the effects of housing shortages, lack of decent housing for low-income residents, and overcrowding in African American neighborhoods,
as well as the remedies developed to address these problems.
3. Assess the relationships between advancements in transportation technology and the growth of the city and neighborhood development,
including the effects of the electric streetcar.

Resources

Resources provided here for you to use as necessary with your class.  For those who need them, handouts are available for most sections.  For others, you might want to project sources on a board for class discussion.  Do what works best with your students.

Appropriate handouts and worksheets are attached to each section of the lesson plan.

This is a lesson rich in newspaper sources.  Expect to use a lot of paper.  One suggestion might be to post the sources around the room.  Another might be to treat the document as if they were primary documents in an archival setting.

Warm Up

Analyze the following map that represent the extnsion of L'Enfant's original plan for the city of Washington as drawin in 1901 - the very beginning of the twentieth century.

1) Circle, identify and describe at least 4 items that are different from the last map we analyzed.

2) Circle, identify and describe at least 4 items that are different than they are today. 

3) What major events do you think shaped the development of Washington, DC in the 20th Century?


L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC - 1901
Creator:
Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/hhh.dc0776.sheet.00017a/?co=hh
Date:

Lesson 3 - Warm-Up



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New Material

For the new material, students will:

(1) Practice document analysis with an advertisement for their school's community, and

(2) Create a timeline of 20th Century events in order to contextualize the rest fothe day's studies. 


Congress Heights, "The Healthiest and Most Delightful Suburb of Washington" - Washington Times, May 17, 1902

Lesson 3 - New Material I



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Lesson 3 - New Material II - Timeline



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Practice

Through analysis of a series of primary and secondary sources, students will analyze the causes for migration to the District as well as migratory patterns within the District.  Though there are many sources, student should analyze at least one document to represent the following eras:

1) Turn of the Century

2) Great Depression

3) World War II / 1950s

4) Civil Rights Movement

5) Late 20th-Century Gentrification

For each doument analyzes, students should use the "Written Document Analysis" worksheet below, provided by the National Archives. 

Written Document Analysis Worksheet



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Creator: National Archives
Source: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/
Date:

New Anacostia Bridge - 1908

Announcement of the completion of the New Anacostia Bridge, which was constructed to help the flow between the booming community of Anacostia with the rest of the city. Discusses hopes for the bridge, as well as what will become of the previous bridge.

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Creator:
Source: The Washington Post
Date: November 29, 1908

Suburbs Deserve a Place in "Know Your Own City" Series - 1920

A letter to the editor in which the author argues the paper focuses too little on the smaller settlements within and surrounding Washington, including Anacostia.

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Creator:
Source: The Washington Post
Date: May 19, 1921

Anacostia Seeks Money For Growing Needs of District - 1925

A brief discussion of the needs facing the city during the "Roaring Twenties."

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Creator:
Source: The Washington Post
Date: August 13, 1925

Washington - The Planned City - 1937

An interesting article about all of the small settlements absorbed by an expanding Washington.

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Creator: C. Harold Gray
Source: The Washington Post
Date: May 30, 1937

Bennings Group Seeks Survey for New Bridge - 1940

In 1940, a group of citizens sought to build a bridge that continued East Capitol Street across the Anacostia.

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Creator: Barry Sullivan
Source: The Washington Post
Date: December 8, 1940

Board Vetos Bridge - 1950

Article which discusses the vetoing of plans for a proposed bridge. The board cites concerns over current traffic patterns as reason for not pursuing the construction of a new bridge at the time.

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Creator: Dorothea Andrews
Source: The Washington Post
Date: January 27, 1950

New Ballou High School Praised - 1960

Announcement for the opening of Ballou Senior High School in Congress Heights

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Creator:
Source: The Washington Post, Times-Herald
Date: September 1, 1960

Groups Vie to Control Rebuilding After the Riot - 1969

Discussion of development issues after the 1968 Riot.

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Creator: Susan Jacoby and Phineas R. Fiske
Source: The Washington Post, Times-Herald
Date: March 5, 1969

Riot Area Merchants Rebuild - 1970

Two years after the Riot, merchants still struggling to rebuild their businesses and their customer base.

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Creator: Paul W. Valentine
Source: The Washington Post, Times-Herald
Date: April 8, 1970

Whites Still Feel Resentment After Riot - 1970

Another in the series of post-Riot articles, this looks at another perspective - and certainly one that influenced racial segregation in the city.

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Creator: Sanford J. Ungar
Source: The Washington Post, Times-Herald
Date: April 7, 1970

The Need For Community Development - 1987

A discussion over how to overcome the divisiveness of te city during the 1980s.

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Creator: Dorothy Gilliam
Source: The Washington Post
Date: January 5, 1987

Visions of Change in Anacostia - 1993

Discussion of the benefits and pitfalls of new development in Anacostia. A fear of losing cultural identity is certainly prevalent. This document has several visuals, so it may be good for your lower-level readers.

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Creator: Hamil Harris
Source: The Washington Post
Date: April 15, 1993

Hill in a Hand Basket - 1994

Discussion of crime and development, using Capitol Hill as a case study for development and gentrification.

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Creator: Charlotte Allen
Source: The Washington Post
Date: March 13, 1994

Assessment

Using at least one source from today's lesson, answer one of the following questions: 

Which event in the 20th Century changed the landscape of DC the most?

Which event in the 20th Century changed the landscape of "East of the River" the most? 

Be sure to include:

(1) a description of the source

(2) the appropriate context of the source

(3) an explanation of how that source answers the question. 

Lesson 3 - Assessment



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Closure and Reflection

Analyze the following map that represent the extension of L'Enfant's original plan for the city of Washington as drawin in 1990 - at thec close of the twentieth century.

1) Circle, identify and describe at least 4 items that are different from the last map we analyzed.

2) Circle, identify and describe at least 4 items that are different than they are today. 

3) Where else is there to grow?  Identify at least two places where the city could develop further.


L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC - 1990
Creator:
Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/dc0776.sheet.00022a/resource/
Date:

Lesson 3 - Closure



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